Sharing of responsibilities between the Federal and Québec governments
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Sharing of responsibilities between the Federal and Québec governments

Jurisdiction over immigration is shared between the Government of Canada and the Government of Québec.

Government of Canada

In the area of humanitarian immigration, Canada is responsible for determining—both in Canada and abroad—whether a person is a refugee or a person in similar circumstances. Canada is also responsible for establishing and enforcing its health, security and criminal criteria.

Persons who are recognized as refugees while in Québec are not subject to the Québec selection process.

Canada is also responsible for determining whether an application for permanent residence can be processed in Canada on humanitarian and compassionate grounds. If Canada agrees, the person is subject to the Québec selection process.

The Québec selection process takes into account both the extent of the candidate’s distress and the candidate’s ability to integrate into Québec society.

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Government of Québec

Refugee selection pools

Each year, Québec agrees with the Government of Canada on the number and origin of refugees and persons in similar situations who, once selected, will be admitted into Québec as government-assisted refugees.

Québec selection process

To be selected by Québec as a government-assisted refugee, a person must be recognized by Canada as a Convention refugee and must not be permanently resettled in the country where they first sought asylum. A person who is the subject of a collective sponsorship may also be recognized as a refugee in the Country of Asylum Class.

The application is then assessed by Québec based on the following factors: the personal qualities and language skills of the foreign national and his or her family members, the presence of dependent children, the relationship with a Québec resident who is the spouse or de facto spouse or a first or second degree relative, and any paid or unpaid work experience. Other factors are also taken into consideration, such as level of education and resourcefulness. Personal qualities (flexibility, social skills, vitality, initiative, perseverance, level-headedness, self-confidence, maturity and motivation) are demonstrated through the refugees’ previous experiences in their country of origin or in the country of first asylum, as well as through the responsibilities they have assumed in their community or by obtaining employment where possible.

Other factors are also taken into account in the assessment of the application, notably the need for protection. The greater the need for protection in the country where the person is currently living, the less importance is attached to their integration capabilities.

Integration capabilities are assessed from a medium-term rather than a short-term perspective.

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Last modification : 2018-10-31
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